bookmark_borderInstalling Duf on Debian 12


In this week’s feature highlight, we look at How to Install Duf on Debian 12

Duf also called “Disk Usage Free utility” is a free and open-source tool written in Golang. It is used to display disk usage of the system in a tabular format. It is an alternative to the df command and it can be installed on Linux, BSD, Windows, and macOS. It also displays the disk usage details in the JSON output.

In this post, we will show you how to monitor disk usage with the Duf utility on Debian 12.


  • A system with Debian 12 installed and running.
  • root access to the system.

Check for System Updates

First, we will update the system to the latest with the following commands,

apt update
apt upgrade

Install Duf

At the time of writing this article, version 0.8.1 was the latest. You can check and download the latest version of .deb source file from their official repository.

We will download using wget command as shown below,



Resolving (,,, ...
Connecting to (||:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 917644 (896K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘duf_0.8.1_linux_amd64.deb’

duf_0.8.1_linux_amd64.deb         100%[=============================================================>] 896.14K  --.-KB/s    in 0.02s   

2023-06-15 22:28:46 (51.3 MB/s) - ‘duf_0.8.1_linux_amd64.deb’ saved [917644/917644]


Install the downloaded .deb source file using the dpkg command,

apt install dpkg
dpkg -i duf_0.8.1_linux_amd64.deb


root@vps:~# dpkg -i duf_0.8.1_linux_amd64.deb 
Selecting previously unselected package duf.
(Reading database ... 33235 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack duf_0.8.1_linux_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking duf (0.8.1) ...
Setting up duf (0.8.1) ...

Using the Duf Command Utility

We will now try using the duf command on the terminal to get disk-related information.



root@vps:~# duf
│ 1 local device                                                                        │
│ MOUNTED ON │  SIZE │ USED │ AVAIL │              USE%             │ TYPE │ FILESYSTEM │
│ /          │ 97.9G │ 1.7G │ 91.2G │ [....................]   1.8% │ ext4 │ /dev/vda2  │
│ 5 special devices                                                                              │
│ MOUNTED ON  │   SIZE │   USED │  AVAIL │              USE%             │ TYPE     │ FILESYSTEM │
│ /dev        │   1.9G │     0B │   1.9G │                               │ devtmpfs │ udev       │
│ /dev/shm    │   1.9G │     0B │   1.9G │                               │ tmpfs    │ tmpfs      │
│ /run        │ 391.5M │ 512.0K │ 391.0M │ [....................]   0.1% │ tmpfs    │ tmpfs      │
│ /run/lock   │   5.0M │     0B │   5.0M │                               │ tmpfs    │ tmpfs      │
│ /run/user/0 │ 391.5M │     0B │ 391.5M │                               │ tmpfs    │ tmpfs      │

Next, Find out more duf usages and available options that you can use to get started,

duf --help

To display the information about Pseudo, inaccessible, and duplicate file systems, run the following command:

duf -all


root@vps:~# duf -all
│ 5 local devices                                                                                        │
│ MOUNTED ON                 │  SIZE │ USED │ AVAIL │              USE%             │ TYPE  │ FILESYSTEM │
│ /                          │ 97.9G │ 1.7G │ 91.2G │ [....................]   1.8% │ ext4  │ /dev/vda2  │
│ /run/credentials/systemd-s │    0B │   0B │    0B │                               │ ramfs │ ramfs      │
│ ysctl.service              │       │      │       │                               │       │            │
│ /run/credentials/systemd-s │    0B │   0B │    0B │                               │ ramfs │ ramfs      │
│ ysusers.service            │       │      │       │                               │       │            │
│ /run/credentials/systemd-t │    0B │   0B │    0B │                               │ ramfs │ ramfs      │
│ mpfiles-setup-dev.service  │       │      │       │                               │       │            │
│ /run/credentials/systemd-t │    0B │   0B │    0B │                               │ ramfs │ ramfs      │
│ mpfiles-setup.service      │       │      │       │                               │       │            │
│ 20 special devices                                                                                              │
│ MOUNTED ON               │   SIZE │   USED │  AVAIL │              USE%             │ TYPE        │ FILESYSTEM  │
│ /dev                     │   1.9G │     0B │   1.9G │                               │ devtmpfs    │ udev        │
│ /dev/hugepages           │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ hugetlbfs   │ hugetlbfs   │
│ /dev/mqueue              │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ mqueue      │ mqueue      │
│ /dev/pts                 │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ devpts      │ devpts      │
│ /dev/shm                 │   1.9G │     0B │   1.9G │                               │ tmpfs       │ tmpfs       │
│ /proc                    │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ proc        │ proc        │
│ /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ binfmt_misc │ binfmt_misc │
│ /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ autofs      │ systemd-1   │
│ /run                     │ 391.5M │ 512.0K │ 391.0M │ [....................]   0.1% │ tmpfs       │ tmpfs       │
│ /run/lock                │   5.0M │     0B │   5.0M │                               │ tmpfs       │ tmpfs       │
│ /run/user/0              │ 391.5M │     0B │ 391.5M │                               │ tmpfs       │ tmpfs       │
│ /sys                     │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ sysfs       │ sysfs       │
│ /sys/fs/bpf              │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ bpf         │ bpf         │
│ /sys/fs/cgroup           │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ cgroup2     │ cgroup2     │
│ /sys/fs/fuse/connections │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ fusectl     │ fusectl     │
│ /sys/fs/pstore           │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ pstore      │ pstore      │
│ /sys/kernel/config       │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ configfs    │ configfs    │
│ /sys/kernel/debug        │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ debugfs     │ debugfs     │
│ /sys/kernel/security     │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ securityfs  │ securityfs  │
│ /sys/kernel/tracing      │     0B │     0B │     0B │                               │ tracefs     │ tracefs     │


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bookmark_borderInstalling Bitwarden on Debian 12


In this week’s feature highlight, we look at How to Install Bitwarden on Debian 12

Bitwarden is a free and open-source password management service that stores sensitive information such as website credentials in an encrypted vault. The Bitwarden platform offers a variety of client applications including a web interface, desktop applications, browser extensions, mobile apps, and a command-line interface.

In this article, we are going to learn how to install Bitwarden on Debian 12. So, let’s get started.

Checkout the Bitwarden Project Here.

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Update the System

apt update 

apt upgrade 


  • A system with Debian 12 installed and running.
  • Min 2GB of RAM.
  • root access to the system.
  • Docker installed and running, for this, you can refer to one of our guides on installing Docker on the Debian Server.

Once you’re all set, we’ll proceed with Bitwarden installation and configuration.

Create a user for Bitwarden

Create a dedicated directory for its user:

mkdir /opt/bitwarden

Add the user:

adduser bitwarden

Permit created directory access to the added user:

chmod -R 700 /opt/bitwarden

chown -R bitwarden:bitwarden /opt/bitwarden

Finally, add the user created for Bitwarden to the Docker group so that it can run the docker command without having sudo or root user access.

usermod -aG docker bitwarden

Download and Install Bitwarden

Install curl command using below command,

apt install curl -y

For this, we will switch over to the new user account we created moments ago. Use the below command to change the user,

su - bitwarden

Download the Bitwarden install script from their official site and start the installation.

curl -Lso && chmod 700

./ install

The installation process will start now. It may take 5-10 mins to complete.

Complete the Instructions in the Installer

Enter your Bitwarden instance's domain name:

This value is usually the DNS record that has been set up.

Do you want to generate a free SSL certificate with Let's Encrypt? (y/n):

Enter y to use Let’s Encrypt to generate a trusted SSL certificate. Let’s Encrypt will ask you for an email address to send you expiration reminders.

Alternatively, If you have your SSL Certificate, enter n and select the option Do you have an SSL certificate to use? with y.

Fill in the following information about your installation:

For installing Bitwarden on your self-hosted server. You need to generate the installation id & installation key from the bitwarden website.

Enter the following installation ID:

For this, you will need to open their site Bitwarden Host. Enter your email address and you will be provided with an Installation ID and Key.

Enter the following installation key:

Now enter the Installation key that was provided to you.

After this, the Bitwarden installation should complete.

Environment Variables

The script does not configure all of Bitwarden’s functionalities. Edit the global.override.env environment file in ./bwdata/env/global.override.env to customize these values. At the very least, you should change the settings for:


Replace with your email id.

Now run the following commands

./ restart

./ start

./ rebuild 

After that Verify that all containers are running correctly

docker ps

Accessing Bitwarden

Now open the IP address from your browser, this will redirect you to the Bitwarden

Replace the with the actual IP or domain configured on the server.

For accessing the admin panel open the URL from your browser, this will redirect you to the Bitwarden Admin.

This is a passwordless entry. Make sure you have configured SMTP services properly. Replace the with the actual IP or domain configured on the server.

Follow the below steps:

Now you have successfully installed Bitwarden on Debian 12.

bookmark_borderInstalling Joomla on Debian 12


In this week’s feature highlight, we look at How to Install Joomla on Debian 12

Joomla is a free and open-source content management system for publishing web content on websites. Web content applications include discussion forums, photo galleries, e-Commerce, and user communities, and numerous other web-based applications.

Update the System to latest,

apt update

apt upgrade

LAMP Stack Configuration

Joomla like any other CMS application, will require a web server with Database running on the system to support it.

And since Joomla is built on PHP, we will need to install PHP as well.

Install Apache and PHP

We will now install Apache and PHP and other supporting packages by running the below command,

apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-php openssl php-imagick php-gd php-imap php-intl php-json php-ldap php-mbstring php-mysql php-pgsql php-smbclient php-ssh2 php-sqlite3 php-xml php-zip

Verify apache version using below command,

apache2 -version


root@server:~# apache2 -version
Server version: Apache/2.4.57 (Debian)
Server built:   2023-04-13T03:26:51

Now start and enable the Apache Web server,

systemctl start apache2 
systemctl enable apache2

Verify Apache is up and running using below command,

systemctl status apache2


root@server:~# systemctl status apache2
● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; preset: enab>
     Active: active (running) since Sat 2023-06-17 14:18:37 EDT; 19s ago
   Main PID: 1227 (apache2)
      Tasks: 55 (limit: 2306)
     Memory: 21.6M
        CPU: 133ms
     CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
             ├─1227 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
             ├─1229 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
             └─1230 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

Jun 17 14:18:37 server systemd[1]: Starting apache2.service - The Apache HTTP S>
Jun 17 14:18:37 server systemd[1]: Started apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Se>

Open server IP address on your browser(http://Server_Ip) to see default Apache page.

Note: Replace Server_Ip with actual IP address of the server.

Verify PHP using below command

php -v  


  root@server:~# php -v
PHP 8.2.7 (cli) (built: Jun  9 2023 19:37:27) (NTS)
Copyright (c) The PHP Group
Zend Engine v4.2.7, Copyright (c) Zend Technologies
    with Zend OPcache v8.2.7, Copyright (c), by Zend Technologies

Install MariaDB

Let us install MariaDB on the server now with the following command,

apt install mariadb-server

MariaDB is not secured by default, As a precaution, we are secure the database engine using below command.


Create a Joomla Database

Login to MariaDB using the command

mysql -u root -p

Let us configure the Database so Joomla can connect to it and store the data.

For this, we will create a Database, create a User and grant certain Privileges to the User. Refer the below commands for the usecase.


CREATE USER 'joomlauser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'StrongPassword';



Replace the StrongPassword with a strong and secure password.

Download and Extract Joomla

We will now download the latest version of Joomla from the Official site.

Download Joomla in Debian using below command,


Once the download is complete. We need to unzip this to the /var/www/html/ directory. Make the directory called Joomla.

apt install unzip 

mkdir /var/www/html/joomla

Unzip the zipped Joomla file to ‘Joomla’ directory created above.

unzip -d /var/www/html/joomla

After unzip, Set the directory ownership of the directory to Apache user and change the permissions using below command,

chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/joomla
chmod -R 755 /var/www/html/joomla

Restart Apache Web server using following command,

systemctl restart apache2 

Configuring Apache for Joomla

Configure the Apache webserver to serve Joomla webpages. For this create a virtual host’s file for Joomla and name it joomla.conf,

nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/joomla.conf

Add the following content into the file

<VirtualHost *:80>
 DocumentRoot /var/www/html/joomla/

 ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
 CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

 <Directory /var/www/html/joomla/>
        Options FollowSymlinks
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted

Save and exit the file,

Replace with your actual domain name.

Enable the virtual host file,

a2ensite joomla.conf
a2enmod rewrite

After this Restart Apache Webserver using below command,

systemctl restart apache2

Open your browser to load the site,

Install SSL Certificate

Let us install the SSL Certificate from Let’s Encrypt. For this, you will need to install certbot via snapd.

Installing snapd,

apt install snapd

Check the snapd for updates,

snap install core; snap refresh core

Install Certbot

snap install --classic certbot

ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot

Since we’re using Apache web server, run the below command to get the certificate,

certbot --apache

The Certbot will take care of your renewal automatically before they expire, you would have to run the certbot again only if you make changes to your configuration. You can perform a test run with below command,

certbot renew --dry-run

Next, reload the page on the browser and it should then redirect and load the HTTPS site

Joomla Configuration

On the browser, we will configure the remaining aspects of getting our Joomla CMS up and running

Upon loading the domain, you will be prompted with setting up Language and Site Name


Enter the required details such as Username, User Account, Super User Password, and Email Address, and click on Setup Database Connection button


Enter the Database information that was configured earlier,


Enter the username and password which was set earlier,


View of the Dashboard after loggin in,


Done! This concludes the topic of installing latest version of Joomla on Debian 12.

bookmark_borderInstalling Gitlab On Debian 12


In this week’s feature highlight, we look at How to Install Gitlab On Debian 12

GitLab is a web-based DevOps lifecycle tool that provides a Git repository manager providing wiki, issue-tracking, and continuous integration and deployment pipeline features, using an open-source license, developed by GitLab Inc.

Update the system.

apt update

apt upgrade

Install required dependencies,

apt-get install curl ca-certificates apt-transport-https gnupg2 -y

Add Gitlab Repository using below command,

curl -s | bash

At the time of making this guide, the GitLab package is not available for Debian 11. You will need to edit the GitLab source file and replace the Debian 11 (Bullseye) code name with Debian 10 (Buster),

nano /etc/apt/sources.list.d/gitlab_gitlab-ce.list

Find the following lines,

deb booksworm main
deb-src booksworm main

Replaced them with the following lines.

deb bullseye main
deb-src bullseye main

Save and close the file and update the repository using the below command,

apt-get update 

Install GitLab CE

apt-get install gitlab-ce -y


root@server:~# apt-get install gitlab-ce -y
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree... Done
Reading state information... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1,323 MB of archives.
After this operation, 3,164 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 bullseye/main amd64 gitlab-ce amd64 16.0.4-ce.                                                                                                       0 [1,323 MB]
Fetched 1,323 MB in 43s (30.7 MB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package gitlab-ce.
(Reading database ... 28668 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../gitlab-ce_16.0.4-ce.0_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking gitlab-ce (16.0.4-ce.0) ...
Setting up gitlab-ce (16.0.4-ce.0) ...
It looks like GitLab has not been configured yet; skipping the upgrade script.

   *.                  *.
  ***                 ***
 *****               *****
.******             *******
********            ********

   _______ __  __          __
  / ____(_) /_/ /   ____ _/ /_
 / / __/ / __/ /   / __ `/ __ \
/ /_/ / / /_/ /___/ /_/ / /_/ /

Thank you for installing GitLab!
GitLab was unable to detect a valid hostname for your instance.
Please configure a URL for your GitLab instance by setting `external_url`
configuration in /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb file.
Then, you can start your GitLab instance by running the following command:
  sudo gitlab-ctl reconfigure

For a comprehensive list of configuration options please see the Omnibus GitLab readme

Help us improve the installation experience, let us know how we did with a 1 minute survey:

Configure GitLab

Once the installation is complete, we will configure the GitLab to our requirements. Below are the edits that can be done,

nano /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb

Replace the following line with your domain name,

external_url 'https://Your_Domain_Name'

Replace/Edit the following lines to enable the Let’s Encrypt SSL,

# Enable the Let's encrypt SSL
letsencrypt['enable'] = true

# This is optional to get SSL related alerts
letsencrypt['contact_emails'] = ['']

# This example renews every 1st day at 01:00 AM
letsencrypt['auto_renew_hour'] = "1"
letsencrypt['auto_renew_minute'] = "0"
letsencrypt['auto_renew_day_of_month'] = "*/1"

Save and close the file.

Let us update the repository now with the below command,

gitlab-ctl reconfigure


   Recipe: registry::enable
  * runit_service[registry] action restart (up to date)
Recipe: nginx::enable
  * execute[reload nginx] action run
    - execute gitlab-ctl hup nginx
Recipe: letsencrypt::enable
  * ruby_block[display_le_message] action run
    - execute the ruby block display_le_message
Recipe: monitoring::grafana
  * runit_service[grafana] action restart (up to date)

Running handlers:
Running handlers complete
Chef Infra Client finished, 26/861 resources updated in 02 minutes 08 seconds

Let's Encrypt is enabled, but external_url is using http

gitlab Reconfigured!

Retrieve the GitLab password using following command,

cat /etc/git/initial_root_password


root@server:~# cat /etc/gitlab/initial_root_password
# WARNING: This value is valid only in the following conditions
#          1. If provided manually (either via `GITLAB_ROOT_PASSWORD` environment variable or via `gitlab_rails['initial_root_password']` setting in `gitlab.rb`, it was provided before database was seeded for the first time (usually, the first reconfigure run).
#          2. Password hasn't been changed manually, either via UI or via command line.
#          If the password shown here doesn't work, you must reset the admin password following

Password: sfC7QoruHZwNUt/WCQtyDa0uFldUUV+vdGBlitq/Bww=

# NOTE: This file will be automatically deleted in the first reconfigure run after 24 hours.

Open a browser and type the following address and You will be redirected to the GitLab login page,

Replace Your_Domain_Name with Actual Domain name