Installing WordPress with LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 23.04

Hello,

In this week’s feature highlight, we look at How to Install WordPress with LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 23.04

WordPress is one of the most popular website-building tools available out there. It is a simple way to get your online presence and perfect for those who do not know how to code and want a simple and effective way to share and build your story on the internet.

Prerequisites:

Creating Database

Log into MySQL with the following command.

mysql -u root -p

First, we’ll create a new database.

CREATE DATABASE wordpress_db;

Next, create a new MySQL user account that we will use to operate on WordPress’s new database, with the username “wordpress_user”.

CREATE USER 'wordpress_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

Note: Replace “password” with a safe and secure password when creating the wordpress_user

Link the user and DB together by granting our user access to the database.

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress_db.* to wordpress_user@'localhost';

Flush the privileges so that MySQL knows about the user permissions we just added.

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Exit out of the MySQL command prompt by typing.

exit

Output:

root@crown:~# mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 81
Server version: 10.6.7-MariaDB-2ubuntu1 Ubuntu 23.04

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE wordpress_db;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.003 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE USER 'wordpress_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.005 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress_db.* to wordpress_user@'localhost';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.003 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.003 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> exit
Bye

Download and Install WordPress

Download the latest WordPress,

wget -O /tmp/wordpress.tar.gz https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

Unzip the downloaded WordPress file.

tar -xzvf /tmp/wordpress.tar.gz -C /var/www/html

Change the permission of the site directory.

chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/wordpress

Create a Server Block or vHost

We will create a server block (also called vHost) for the WordPress site and have it’s own configuration.

Create a new configuration file using your favourite editor,

vi /etc/nginx/sites-available/wp.domainhere.info

Replace wp.domainhere.info with actual domain name.

And insert the following content into the file.

server {
  listen 80;
  listen [::]:80;
  #server_name _;
  server_name wp.domainhere.info
  root /var/www/html/wordpress/;
  index index.php index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

  error_log /var/log/nginx/wp.domainhere.info_error.log;
  access_log /var/log/nginx/wp.domainhere.info_access.log;

  location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php;
  }

  location ~ \.php$ {
    fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.1-fpm.sock;
    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
    include fastcgi_params;
    include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
  }

 # A long browser cache lifetime can speed up repeat visits to your page
  location ~* \.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|webp|svg|woff|woff2|ttf|css|js|ico|xml)$ {
       access_log        off;
       log_not_found     off;
       expires           360d;
  }

  # disable access to hidden files
  location ~ /\.ht {
      access_log off;
      log_not_found off;
      deny all;
  }
}

Save and exit the file.

Next create a symbolic link of the configuration in the sites-enabled directory with the following command:

ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/wp.domainhere.info /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

Remove default Nginx server blocks to prevent Nginx automatic requests routing.

rm /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

Set up SSL Certificate

Run the command to install certbot specific to Nginx

snap install --classic certbot

Run this command to get a certificate and have Certbot edit your Nginx configuration automatically to serve it, turning on HTTPS access in a single step.

certbot --nginx -d wp.domainhere.info -d wp.domainhere.info

You will have to accept the terms of service.

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/wp.domainhere.info/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/wp.domainhere.info/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2020-09-05. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again
   with the "certonly" option. To non-interactively renew *all* of
   your certificates, run "certbot renew"
 - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

You will receive this acknowledgement that the SSL certificate for wp.domainhere.info and www.wp.domainhere.info are successfull.

You can now verify your website using https:// that the connection is secure with the lock icon in the usrl bar.

To check that you have top-of-the-line installation, navigate to https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/.

Confirm that the configuration is all OK and there are no errors.

nginx -t

you would see an output like below:

root@vps:~# nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

Now that the configuration has no errors, restart the web server:

systemctl restart nginx

Navigate to your browser.

http://wp.domainhere.info OR http://IP_ADDRESS/wordpress

Note: Replace wp.domainhere.info or IP_ADDRESS with the actual domain name or IP address of your website/server.

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Start a WordPress installation by clicking on the Run the installation button.

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Provide the requested information.

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Once WordPress has been installed log in with your new user credentials.

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Done!

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